What is Whistle Blowing?
El-Astal Dr conducted some research into attitudes to honesty among PROs at higher education institutions spread across the globe. IPRA members were discussing recently, via yahoo-groups.
This issue, at least to me, is one of the most important issues discussed by IPRA members online. I have decided to participate in the discussion but on the IPRA Frontline pages, not via yahoo-groups. This article reviews honesty, as an ethical value, in PR definitions; in the eyes of ethicists; in IPRA codes of conduct; and finally in practice —as perceived by cross-national PR practitioners.
Ethics Honesty in PR Definitions Good character or ethics lies at the heart of public relations like any other profession. A simple analysis of public relations definitions emphasizes the importance of good character for public relations.
Scott Cutlip and Allen Centerafter compiling and reviewing some public relations definitions, developed a capsulized working definition for public relations emphasizing on good character.
They defined PR as: Taking this into consideration, ethical public relations as a part of the management is very important to the success of organizations.
The importance of ethics comes from the emphasis on the relationship between good relations with publics and success or failure of organizations.
Accordingly, Cutlip et al. Honesty in the Eyes of Ethicists Credible words are pivotal to the communication enterprise. Although there is much difference on truthfulness, it simply can be defined as the opposite of deception, which is a deliberate intention to mislead Christian et al.
Showing the importance of honesty, Sissela Bok in Newsom et al. Moreover, Immanuel Kant says that truth is important because without it social intercourse and conversation become valueless.
The exchange of our sentiments is the principal factor in social intercourse, and the truth must be the guiding principle herein Donaldson and Werhane, Telling the truth, according to codes of ethics adopted by various communication and public relations professional organizations, underpins the work of those in communication professions, including various public relations fields Keller, The very possibility of a society depends, Winch in Jaksa and Pritchard, He also adds that speaking truthfully is a norm and speaking untruthfully is a deviation.
For example, honesty was clearly mentioned in the twelfth paragraph of the Code of Athens. The code asks members to refrain from taking part in any venture or undertaking which is unethical or dishonest. Also, the code of Venice states in its third article that a member shall not intentionally disseminate false or misleading information.
Practically, the study I conducted is expected to help both practitioners and theorists understand how educational public relations is ethically practiced in different cultures, and religions. In other words, the study is expected to determine whether educational public relations ethics is dependent or independent — relative or absolute.
The countries represented were selected purposively, taking into consideration the spread of the main six religions in the world — Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.
They were as follows: Thus, institutions were surveyed in the eight countries represented.
Questionnaire composition — the survey questionnaire contained 25 hypothetical public relations practices. Four of these practices relate to honesty.
PR officers were asked to judge on these hypothetical practices by ticking only one of the categories listed in a four-point scale: Data analysis — the data were coded and entered into SPSS-program for analysis. Results — in terms of culture, the study reveals that all respondents, regardless of their different cultures, see the four actions tested as unethical ones with a significant difference in the last action.
In terms of religion, the study reveals that all respondents, regardless of their different religions, see the four actions tested as unethical ones. Briefly, honesty outweighed all other considerations.About the Text of the printed book.
The text of William Kingdon Clifford’s “The Ethics of Belief” is based upon the first edition of Lectures and Essays, Macmillan and Co., , edited by Leslie Stephen and Frederick ashio-midori.com text of William James’ “The Will to Believe” is based upon the first edition of The Will to Believe and other essays in popular philosophy, Longmans.
I. INTRODUCTION. There are nearly Billion Muslims worldwide; about one fifth of the total world population.
As is the case with any universal religion, a great cultural diversity does exist among them. Ethical dilemmas occur when values are in conflict. The American Library Association Code of Ethics states the values to which we are committed, and embodies the ethical responsibilities of the profession in this changing information environment.
Whistle blowing. While some may view it as “snitching,” others may view it as an action of bravery and stemming from a dedication to ethics.
1 Honesty, Integrity and Ethics in Public Relations Success in public relations demands strict intellectual honesty and integrity in all aspects of one’s professional demeanor.
Profit-enhancing stewardship: the importance of corporate governance and its role in preventing future failures and ensuring sustainable and fair development.