This is a work of uncertain date, celebrating the Battle of Maldon ofat which the Anglo-Saxons failed to prevent a Viking invasion. Beowulf is the most famous work in Old English, and has achieved national epic status in England, despite being set in Scandinavia. The only surviving manuscript is the Nowell Codexthe precise date of which is debated, but most estimates place it close to the year
Knowledge of the pre-Wycliffite English renditions stems from the many actual manuscripts that have survived and from secondary literature, such as book lists, wills, citations by later authors, and references in polemical works that have preserved the memory of many a translation effort.
Origins and basic characteristics English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages and is therefore related to most other languages spoken in Europe and western Asia from Iceland to India. The parent tongue, called Proto-Indo-European, was spoken about 5, years ago by nomads believed to have roamed the southeast European plains.
Germanicone of the language groups descended from this ancestral speech, is usually divided by scholars into three regional groups: Though closely related to English, German remains far more conservative than English in its retention of a fairly elaborate system of inflections.
Frisian, spoken by the inhabitants of the Dutch province of Friesland and the islands off the west coast of Schleswigis the language most nearly related to Modern English. Icelandic, which has changed little over the last thousand years, is the living language most nearly resembling Old English in grammatical structure.
Approximate locations of Indo-European languages in contemporary Eurasia. Modern English is analytic i. During the course of thousands of years, English words have been slowly simplified from the inflected variable forms found in SanskritGreekLatinRussianand German, toward invariable forms, as in Chinese and Vietnamese.
The German and Chinese words for the noun man are exemplary. German has five forms: Chinese has one form: English stands in between, with four forms: In English, only nouns, pronouns as in he, him, hisadjectives as in big, bigger, biggestand verbs are inflected.
English is the only European language to employ uninflected adjectives; e. As for verbs, if the Modern English word ride is compared with the corresponding words in Old English and Modern German, it will be found that English now has only 5 forms ride, rides, rode, riding, riddenwhereas Old English ridan had 13, and Modern German reiten has In addition to the simplicity of inflections, English has two other basic characteristics: Flexibility of function has grown over the last five centuries as a consequence of the loss of inflections.
Words formerly distinguished as nouns or verbs by differences in their forms are now often used as both nouns and verbs. One can speak, for example, of planning a table or tabling a plan, booking a place or placing a book, lifting a thumb or thumbing a lift.
In the other Indo-European languagesapart from rare exceptions in Scandinavian languagesnouns and verbs are never identical because of the necessity of separate noun and verb endings. In English, forms for traditional pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs can also function as nouns; adjectives and adverbs as verbs; and nouns, pronouns, and adverbs as adjectives.
One speaks in English of the Frankfurt Book Fair, but in German one must add the suffix -er to the place-name and put attributive and noun together as a compoundFrankfurter Buchmesse.
In French one has no choice but to construct a phrase involving the use of two prepositions: Foire du Livre de Francfort. In English it is now possible to employ a plural noun as adjunct modifieras in wages board and sports editor; or even a conjunctional group, as in prices and incomes policy and parks and gardens committee.
Any word class may alter its function in this way: Openness of vocabulary implies both free admission of words from other languages and the ready creation of compounds and derivatives.
English adopts without change or adapts with slight change any word really needed to name some new object or to denote some new process.
Words from more than languages have entered English in this way. Although a Germanic language in its sounds and grammarthe bulk of English vocabulary is in fact Romance or Classical in origin.
English possesses a system of orthography that does not always accurately reflect the pronunciation of words; see below Orthography. Characteristics of Modern English Phonology British Received Pronunciation RPtraditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and southeastern Englandis one of many forms or accents of standard speech throughout the English-speaking world.
Other pronunciations, although not standard, are often heard in the public domain. It is considered the prestige accent in such institutions as the civil service and the BBC and, as such, has fraught associations with wealth and privilege in Britain.Founded in by teachers and scholars, the Modern Language Association (MLA) promotes the study and teaching of language and literature.
METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all patients at a pediatric hospital reported to CPS for medical neglect over a 6-year period.
Data about health, health care, CPS involvement, and social history were obtained through medical record review.
Commerce Tacoma, Washington () or toll-free [email protected] Modified: August 31, In Modernist literature, it was the poets who took fullest advantage of the new spirit of the times, and stretched the possibilities of their craft to lengths not previously imagined.
The world of science fiction. Science fiction is a modern ashio-midori.com writers in antiquity sometimes dealt with themes common to modern science fiction, their stories made no attempt at scientific and technological plausibility, the feature that distinguishes science fiction from earlier speculative writings and other contemporary speculative genres such as fantasy and horror.
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