This essay will argue to a small extent the classic Welfare State promote a more egalitarian society. It is because cost and benefit were not often equally shared under the system, within difference socio-economic groups SEGsthroughout the classic era For example, citizens pay the tax for the NHS and the rich and the poor could receive same level of treatment . In this essay, egalitarian is considered as each individual contributes the same weight of cost and they should acquire the same level of benefit .
Social class in britain essay help has been suggested that social inequality is a feature of all human societies Haralambos and Holbornp. Sociologists have identified a number of different forms of stratification systems existing in other societies or historic periods, for example, the caste system in traditional India, slavery and feudalism Bilton et alpp.
From a study of other systems it is clear that not all systems of stratification are organised in terms of social class; the caste system for example was stratified in terms of status.
Bilton et alp. For Marx there were two distinct classes in society; the capitalist class, who own the means of production, and the working class, who own only their labour power which they sell to the capitalist class, or bourgeoisie, in return for wages.
Marx believed that the relationship between the bourgeoisie and the working class was one of exploitation; the bourgeoisie exploit the working class as the wages workers receive for their labour is a fraction of the market value of the products they produce.
Marx felt that the conflicts of interest inherent in capitalist societies would eventually lead to its downfall and to the emergence of a communist society. He believed that once the working class realised the true nature of their exploitation they would rise up and overthrow capitalism.
Another classic sociologist, Max Weber, agreed with Marx that social classes develop when individuals compete in a market economy for economic resources; however he saw other factors as equally important in understanding class composition and divisions in society. Weber identified four separate classes in capitalist society; the propertied upper class, the propertyless white-collar workers, the petty bourgeoisie and the manual working class Haralambos and Holbornp.
For Weber, as Haralambos and Holbornp. Different occupations offer different skills, and skills that are highly valued or in demand will lead to greater rewards. In this way, social class may be determined by occupation and skills, as opposed to the relationship of individuals and groups to the means of production, because economic rewards affect lifestyle and life chances.
Weber also saw as important in the formation of social groups the concepts of status and parties. Status and party groups may or may not belong to, or serve the interests of, the same social class.
This idea is obviously in contrast to the ideas of Marx, who argued that the working class would one day recognise their shared situation of inequality and oppression and come together as a homogeneous group to overthrow the forces of capitalism.
Marxists argue that Weber placed too much emphasis on market position, neglecting the most important class division between the capitalists and the working class. Marxists have also argued that status divisions are closely linked to class divisions, that is, the class in possession of the greatest proportion of property and wealth will necessarily also possess greater status and power.
Despite these criticisms, the theories of Marx and Weber have proved an influential basis for most modern sociological theories of class. The problems inherent in identifying the number of different social classes in modern society are many and varied and include broad questions of ontology, as well as detailed ones of definitions and boundaries.
Occupation is the most common indicator of social class used in present times, but scales vary as to the number of classes identified and the definitions of each class in terms of occupations. Most scales, however, recognise an upper, middle and working class.
The underclass is comprised of individuals who are unemployed, or have never worked or who have a particularly weak position in the labour market. Members of this class include single parents and ethnic minorities, but Runciman argued that it was not their status that placed them in this class but their reliance on state benefits.
In general, however, most sociologists have tended to draw on one or other approach and these sociologists are referred to as neo-Marxists or neo-Weberians. Neo-Weberians such as David Lockwood, however, challenge this view.
Lockwood used Weberian concepts such as market, work and status situation in his study of clerks to argue that, while wages for this group had begun to drop below that of skilled manual labourers, their market position in terms of job security, promotion prospects and benefits still gave them an advantaged position.
Other criticisms of Marxist theories of proletarianization include the theory of embourgeoisement. Due to rising living standards among the working class, it was argued, increasing numbers of this group were effectively joining the middle class.
While there are numerous debates surrounding the existence or otherwise of an underclass or a middle class, and even debates as to whether there remains an upper or ruling class in society, one thing most sociologists agree on is that social class is a system of stratification defined by the unequal distribution of social advantage.
While the key debate between neo-Marxists and neo-Weberians appears to centre around questions of social class composition, the underlying issues they seek to address are those of class inequality.
Social class, then, is not simply a label applied for convenience in society to differentiate between social groups in terms of similarities and differences in occupation, lifestyle or attitudes; it is, rather, a system of inequality of opportunity.
Marxists and Weberians generally agree, despite the claims of other sociologists such functionalists, new right theorists and postmodernists, that there remain substantial inequalities between different social classes. Social and Cultural Forms of Modernity.
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About this resource This Sociology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.The French Revolution: A War of the Social Classes - The French Revolution was basically a war of the social classes. The middle class believed that in order to gain equality they had to get rid of the privileges that were .
Essay: Britain’s Welfare state The Classic Welfare State was initiated by the Labour’s Beveridge Report which aimed to eliminate the ‘five giant’ towards post-war reconstruction . This essay will argue to a small extent the classic Welfare State promote a more egalitarian society.
It is the contention of this essay that social exclusion remains a defining feature of British society, and as such the class system continues to operate to distinguish between those who are part of the ‘in’ group, and those that are not.
Sociology Essay - In sociology, the term social class is most often used to refer to the primary system of social stratification found in modern capitalist societies. Social class theme paper This is an analysis of a television show that has a social class theme.
Tyler Perry House of Payne is a comedy series about a multigenerational, working class family who experiences all of life’s struggles dealing with faith, love, and humor.
Social class may also refer to any particular level in such a hierarchy." Social classes represent an important part in people's lives because they are essential to proper understanding of British history and because class is a major British preoccupation, especially in political life.