Methods, Techniques, of Teaching English Length: Re-situating the perspective from a Multilingual to a Bilingual context. The role of English in India has been controversial right from the time of its introduction and several historical parameters testify to this fact. Controversies do exist even today at the socio-cultural level regarding the relative acceptability of English and its most formidable regional rival, now the national language of India —Hindi.
A scientific revolution occurs, according to Kuhn, when scientists encounter anomalies that cannot be explained by the universally accepted paradigm within which scientific progress has thereto been made. The paradigm, in Kuhn's view, is not simply the current theory, but Shifting paradigms methods techniques of teaching entire worldview in which it exists, and all of the implications which come with it.
This is based on features of landscape of knowledge that scientists can identify around them. There are anomalies for all paradigms, Kuhn maintained, that are brushed away as acceptable levels of error, or simply ignored and not dealt with a principal argument Kuhn uses to reject Karl Popper 's model of falsifiability as the key force involved in scientific change.
Rather, according to Kuhn, anomalies have various levels of significance to the practitioners of science at the time. To put it in the context of early 20th century physics, some scientists found the problems with calculating Mercury's perihelion more troubling than the Michelson-Morley experiment results, and some the other way around.
Kuhn's model of scientific change differs here, and in many places, from that of the logical positivists in that it puts an enhanced emphasis on the individual humans involved as scientists, rather than abstracting science into a purely logical or philosophical venture.
When enough significant anomalies have accrued against a current paradigm, the scientific discipline is thrown into a state of crisis, according to Kuhn. During this crisis, new ideas, perhaps ones previously discarded, are tried.
Eventually a new paradigm is formed, which gains its own new followers, and an intellectual "battle" takes place between the followers of the new paradigm and the hold-outs of the old paradigm. Again, for early 20th century physics, the transition between the Maxwellian electromagnetic worldview and the Einsteinian relativistic worldview was neither instantaneous nor calm, and instead involved a protracted set of "attacks," both with empirical data as well as rhetorical or philosophical arguments, by both sides, with the Einsteinian theory winning out in the long run.
Again, the weighing of evidence and importance of new data was fit through the human sieve: Some found Arthur Eddington 's photographs of light bending around the sun to be compelling, while some questioned their accuracy and meaning.
Sometimes the convincing force is just time itself and the human toll it takes, Kuhn said, using a quote from Max Planck: It is often this final conclusion, the result of the long process, that is meant when the term paradigm shift is used colloquially: In a retrospective on Kuhn,  the philosopher Martin Cohen describes the notion of the paradigm shift as a kind of intellectual virus — spreading from hard science to social science and on to the arts and even everyday political rhetoric today.
Cohen claims that Thomas Kuhn himself had only a very hazy idea of what it might mean and, in line with the American philosopher of science, Paul Feyerabendaccuses Kuhn of retreating from the more radical implications of his theory, which are that scientific facts are never really more than opinions, whose popularity is transitory and far from conclusive.
Science and paradigm shift[ edit ] A common misinterpretation of paradigms is the belief that the discovery of paradigm shifts and the dynamic nature of science with its many opportunities for subjective judgments by scientists are a case for relativism: Kuhn vehemently denies this interpretation  and states that when a scientific paradigm is replaced by a new one, albeit through a complex social process, the new one is always better, not just different.
These claims of relativism are, however, tied to another claim that Kuhn does at least somewhat endorse: This gave rise to much talk of different peoples and cultures having radically different worldviews or conceptual schemes—so different that whether or not one was better, they could not be understood by one another.
If this is correct, Kuhn's claims must be taken in a weaker sense than they often are. Furthermore, the hold of the Kuhnian analysis on social science has long been tenuous with the wide application of multi-paradigmatic approaches in order to understand complex human behaviour see for example John Hassard, Sociology and Organization Theory: Positivism, Paradigm and Postmodernity.
Paradigm shifts tend to be most dramatic in sciences that appear to be stable and mature, as in physics at the end of the 19th century. At that time, physics seemed to be a discipline filling in the last few details of a largely worked-out system.
InLord Kelvin famously told an assemblage of physicists at the British Association for the Advancement of Science"There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement.
In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn wrote, "Successive transition from one paradigm to another via revolution is the usual developmental pattern of mature science.Shifting from an emphasis on teaching to learning is a complex task for both teachers and students.
This paper reports on a qualitative study of teachers in a nurse specialist education programme meeting this shift in a distance education course.
The two paradigms of classroom instruction, teacher-centered and learner-centered, differ significantly in knowledge direction. Source of knowledge – With teacher-centered classroom instruction, knowledge primarily comes from the teacher. Oct 13, · The paradigm shift that I am talking about is taking place in education and is an overarching change in the way the world works.
This paradigm shift is represented in many of the innovations we find so disruptive. 4 New Methods of Teaching English in the Modern Classroom. While traditional methodologies such as the audio-lingual and direct methods still offer useful elements, they’re clearly outdated in .
learning and teaching some portions of research methods simultaneously. Furthermore, a qualitative methods graduate student is often surprised at the amount of work and concentration required to become a qualitative researcher (Webb & Glesne, ).
Paradigm shift of education CALLS for the departure from the traditional teaching methods which are primarily Teacher Centered into a Student-Centered Learning Environment. 9. Model for cooperative and collaborative Learning There are plenty of models for cooperative and collaborative teaching strategies such as JIGSAW PUZZLE and THINK- PAIR.