Germany 1918 1939 notes

This silver 3 Albus coin of Trier is called a Petermenger. One side of the coin depicts St.

Germany 1918 1939 notes

The Ministry of Blockade published a comprehensive list of items that neutral commercial ships were not to transport to the Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungaryand the Ottoman Empire. Because Britain and France together controlled 15 of the 20 refuelling points along the main shipping routes, they were able to threaten those who refused to comply, by the withdrawal of their bunker fuel control facilities.

A large force, known as the Dover Patrol patrolled at one end of the North Sea while another, the Tenth Cruiser Squadron waited at the other. The Mediterranean Sea was effectively blocked at both ends and the dreadnought battleships of the Grand Fleet waited at Scapa Flow to sail out and meet any German offensive threat.

Later in the war a large minefieldknown as the Northern Barragewas deployed between the Faroes and the coast of Norway to further restrict German ship movements. Germany in particular was heavily reliant on a wide range of foreign imports and suffered very badly from the blockade.

Its own substantial fleet of modern warships was hemmed into its bases at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven by the Royal Navy and mostly forbidden by the leadership from venturing out. Making use of tip-offs provided by a vast array of individuals such as bankers, merchant buyers, waterfront stevedores and ship operators doing their patriotic duty, the Navy could have priceless advance knowledge of which ships might be carrying contraband long before they reached port.

Germany 1918 1939 notes

From left to right: Initially the Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, was not keen on the idea and still hoped to avoid war, but following his appeasement of Hitler at Munich in Septemberwhich was widely seen as a stopgap measure to buy time, he too began to realise the need for urgent preparations for war.

During the last 12 months of peace, Britain and France carried out a vigorous buildup of their armed forces and weapons production.


The long-awaited Spitfire fighter began to enter service, the first of the new naval vessels ordered under the emergency programme began to join the fleet, and the Air Ministry made the final touches to the Chain Home early warning network of radio direction-finding later called radar stations, to bring it up to full operational readiness.

Of secondary importance was the defence of trade in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean. If Italy, as assumed also declared war and became an aggressive opponent, her dominating geographical position might force shipping to go the long way around the Cape of Good Hope South Africabut it was hoped to contain her with a strong fleet in the Mediterranean.

Finally, there was the need for a vigorous blockade against Germany and Italy. Pre-war situation in Germany[ edit ] In Germany, where Hitler had warned his generals and party leaders that there would eventually be another war as early as[8] there was great concern about the potential effects of a new blockade.

In order to force Germany to sign the Treaty of Versaillesthe original blockade was extended for an additional nine months after the end of the fighting in October The Great Depression in an international perspective.

By Germany had the biggest economy in Europe and she entered the war in with plentiful reserves of gold and foreign currency and good credit ratings. Because Germany was nowhere as wealthy in real terms as she had been a generation earlier, with very low reserves of foreign exchange and zero credit, [14] Hjalmar Schachtand later Walther Funkas Minister of Economy used a number of financial devices — some very clever — to manipulate the currency and gear the German economy towards Wehrwirtschaft War Economy.

One example was the Mefo billa kind of IOU produced by the Reichsbank to pay armaments manufacturers but which was also accepted by German banks. In September he established the Four Year Planthe purpose of which was to make Germany self-sufficient and impervious to blockade by The great DanubeElbeRhineOderWeserMain and Neckar rivers were dredged and made fully navigableand an intricate network of canals was built to interlink them and connect them to major cities.

Heavy investment was made in ersatz synthetic industries to produce goods from natural resources Germany did have, such as textiles made from celluloserubber and oil made from coal, sugar and ethyl alcohol from wood, and materials for the print industry produced from potato tops.The Blockade of Germany (–), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany – and later Fascist Italy – in order to sustain their war efforts.

Germany 1918 1939 notes

The economic war consisted mainly of a naval blockade, which formed part of the wider. Assumption regarding Germany’s speed, underestimation regarding Belgium and British resistance. Inflexible and unrealistic. German army not familiar with defensive warfare.5/5(7). - AS/A level notes by the History Co-ordinator of Guildford School.


Dr Dennis's model answers - very clear and - Giles Hill's excellent podcasts on Germany - Scott Allsop's podcast on Nazi Control of Germany - BBC debate-podcast on life in Nazi Germany - Scott Allsop's podcast on life in Nazi Germany - quirky view.

Germany banknotes Germany paper money catalog and German currency history. A brief monetary history: German Thaler, Gulden and Schilling, till - The Franks during the First World War. Otto Frank and his brothers are called up to fight on the Western Front for the German army.

Their mother and sister volunteer to work in a Frankfurt military hospital. German coins and currency, including issues of the German Empire, Weimar Republic, Nazi, East Germany and Unified Germany.

Blockade of Germany (–) - Wikipedia