References and Further Reading 1.
Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies.
Once that sketch is in hand, the article defines the notion of metaphilosophy and distinguishes between explicit and implicit metaphilosophy. Then there is a consideration of how metaphilosophies might be categorized and an outline of the course of the remainder of the article.
Some Pre-Twentieth Century Metaphilosophy Socrates believed that the unexamined life — the unphilosophical life — was not worth living PlatoApology, 38a.
Indeed, Socrates saw his role as helping to rouse people from unreflective lives. According to Aristotlephilosophy begins in wonder, seeks the most fundamental causes or principles of things, and is the least necessary but thereby the most divine of sciences Metaphysics, book alpha, sections 1—3.
Later philosophers continued and even intensified the stress on philosophical practicality. The Roman Cicero held that to study philosophy is to prepare oneself for death.
The idea that philosophy is the handmaiden of theology, earlier propounded by the Hellenistic thinker Philo of Alexandriais most associated with the medieval age and particularly with Aquinas. Aquinas resumed the project of synthesizing Christianity with Greek philosophy - a project that had been pursued already by various thinkers including AugustineAnselmand Boethius.
Boethius was a politician inspired by philosophy — but the politics ended badly for him.
In those respects he resembles the earlier Seneca. And, like Seneca, Boethius wrote of the consolations of philosophy. Is philosophy a process or a product?
What kind of knowledge can philosophy attain? How should one understand philosophical disagreement? Is philosophy historical in some special or deep way?
Should philosophy make us better people? What method s and types of evidence suit philosophy? How should philosophy be written presuming it should be written at all? Is philosophy, in some sense, over — or should it be?
But how might one define metaphilosophy? One definition owes to Morris Lazerowitz. One alternative definition construes metaphilosophy as the philosophy of philosophy. Sometimes that definition intends this idea: That idea itself comes in two versions. The thought here is this. Metaphilosophy, as the application of philosophy to philosophy itself, is simply one more instance of philosophy Wittgenstein Metaphilosophy stands to philosophy as philosophy stands to its subject matter or to other disciplines Reschersuch that, as Williamson puts it loc.
On this definition, metaphilosophy is post-philosophy. Indeed, those construals have little content until after one has a considerable idea of what philosophy is. Such indeed is a third possible reading of the philosophy-of-philosophy construal. Now, just what does so pertain is moot; and there is a risk of being too unaccommodating.
Explicit and Implicit Metaphilosophy Explicit metaphilosophy is metaphilosophy pursued as a subfield of, or attendant field to, philosophy. Metaphilosophy so conceived has waxed and waned. In the early twenty-first century, it has waxed in Europe and in the Anglophone English-speaking world.
This article will revisit all of those topics in one way or another.Freud, Politics and Civilisation - an essay [Patricia Morris] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
FREUD, POLITICS and CIVILISATION is an essay outlining the context in which Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis.
The essay counters an imputation that he was apolitical and briefly considers problems introduced by the translation of his writings. Feb 10, · This Is My Brain on Chantix I’d heard it was the most effective stop-smoking drug yet. So I took it. Then those reports of suicidal ideation began washing in.
The Canadian psychology professor’s stardom is evidence that leftism is on the decline—and deeply vulnerable. When the top man at The New York Times publishes a sober statement about a. —Essay on psychology in Politics (New York). Books and Arts, Books, New York, Years Stories, The Soviet Press, Catholic Church, Culture, George Orwell.
New arguments. The rhetoric of the rapidly growing Alternative for Germany party and its supporters indicates a potentially profound shift in German political culture: it is now possible to be an outspoken nationalist without being associated with—or, for that matter, without having to say anything about—the Nazi past.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the midth century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.
F. Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own.