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The Transatlantic Slave Trade Overview Over the course of more than three and a half centuries, the forcible transportation in bondage of at least twelve million men, women, and children from their African homelands to the Americas changed forever the face and character of the modern world.
The slave trade was brutal and horrific, and the enslavement of Africans was cruel, exploitative, and dehumanizing. Together, they represent one of the longest and most sustained assaults on the very life, integrity, and dignity of human beings in history.
In the Americas, besides the considerable riches their free labor created for others, the importation and subsequent enslavement of the Africans would be the major factor in the resettlement of the continents following the disastrous decline in their indigenous population. Between andan estimated 6.
More than five out of six were Africans. Although victimized and exploited, they created a new, largely African, Creole society and their forced migration resulted in the emergence of the so-called Black Atlantic.
The transatlantic slave trade laid the foundation for modern capitalism, generating immense wealth for business enterprises in America and Europe. The trade contributed to the industrialization of northwestern Europe and created a single Atlantic world that included western Europe, western Africa, the Caribbean islands, and the mainlands of North and South America.
On the other hand, the overwhelming impact on Africa of its involvement in the creation of this modern world was negative. The continent experienced the loss of a significant part of its able-bodied population, which played a part in the social and political weakening of its societies that left them open, in the nineteenth century, to colonial domination and exploitation.
The Development of the Trade In the mid-fifteenth century, Portuguese ships sailed down the West African coast in a maneuver designed to bypass the Muslim North Dbq american and muslim slavery, who had a virtual monopoly on the trade of sub-Saharan gold, spices, and other commodities that Europe wanted.
These voyages resulted in maritime discoveries and advances in shipbuilding that later would make it easier for European vessels to navigate the Atlantic.
Over time, the Portuguese vessels added another commodity to their cargo: African men, women, and children. For the first one hundred years, captives in small numbers were transported to Europe.
By the close of the fifteenth century, 10 percent of the population of Lisbon, Portugal, then one of the largest cities in Europe, was of African origin. English and Dutch ships soon joined Portugal's vessels trading along the African coast.
They preyed on the Portuguese ships, while raiding and pillaging the African mainland as well. During this initial period, European interest was particularly concentrated on Senegambia. Culturally and linguistically unified through Islam and in some areas, Manding culture and language, the region and Mali to its east had a long and glorious history, centered on the ancient Kingdom of Ghana and the medieval empires of Mali and Songhay.
Its interior regions of Bure and Bambuk were rich in gold. It reached the Mediterranean and hence Europe from Songhay. The slave trade was closely linked to the Europeans' insatiable hunger for gold, and the arrival of the Portuguese on the " Gold Coast" Ghana in the s tapped these inland sources.
Later, they developed commercial and political relations with the kingdoms of Benin in present-day Nigeria and Kongo.
The Kongo state became Christianized and, in the process, was undermined by the spread of the slave trade. Benin, however, restricted Portuguese influence and somewhat limited the trade in human beings.
Starting inAfricans were part of every expedition into the regions that became the American Spanish colonies. By the beginning of the sixteenth century, they were brought as slaves to grow sugar and mine gold on Hispaniola, and were forced to drain the shallow lakes of the Mexican plateau, thereby finalizing the subjugation of the Aztec nation.
In a bitter twist, the Africans were often forced to perform tasks that would help advance the genocide that would resolve the vexing "Indian question.
The creation of ever-larger sugar plantations and the introduction of other crops such as indigo, rice, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, and cotton would lead to the displacement of an estimated seven million Africans between and The demand for labor resulted in numerous innovations, encouraged opportunists and entrepreneurs, and accrued deceptions and barbarities, upon which the slave trade rested.
Some slave traders - often well-respected men in their communities - made fortunes for themselves and their descendants. The corresponding impact on Africa was intensified as larger parts of west and central Africa came into the slavers' orbit. The third and final period of the transatlantic slave trade began with the ban on the importation of captives imposed by Britain and the United States in and lasted until the s.
Brazil, Cuba, and Puerto Rico were the principal destinations for Africans, since they could no longer legally be brought into North America, the British or French colonies in the Caribbean, or the independent countries of Spanish America. Despite this restricted market, the numbers of deported Africans did not decline until the late s.
Many were smuggled into the United States.
At the same time, tens of thousands of Africans rescued from the slave ships were forcibly settled in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and several islands of the Caribbean.
Capture and Enslavement War, slave raiding, kidnapping, and politico-religious struggle accounted for the vast majority of Africans deported to the Americas.
Several important wars resulted in massive enslavement, including the export of prisoners across the Atlantic, the ransoming of others, and the use of enslavement within Africa itself.
The Akan wars of the late seventeenth century and the first half of the eighteenth century were a struggle for power among states in the Gold Coast hinterland.
Akwamu, Akyem, Denkyira, Fante, and Asante groups battled for more than half a century for control of the region. By the mid-eighteenth century, Asante emerged as the dominant force.GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Thursday, June 17, — to p.m., Muslim stronghold of Granada.
In , Granada Slavery was most widely practiced in Sweden, Denmark, and Holland. (3) Conditions of slavery in Brazil were less harsh than those in the United States. Essay on Identity And Unity DBQ 1.
The American Colonists’ Evolution of Their Identity and Unity The colonists experienced a revolution of their sense of identity and unity as .
The DBQ: Document Based Question + Report. A shipping manifest of items shipped to American troops in Europe would help me evaluate the economic impact of World War II in the USA. Your Score To get a nine, you must first get a seven. How I Score 1. AP 8 DBQ on slavery .
American and Muslim Slaveries Slavery is as old as the world's first civilizations. Two important slave movements were the one across the Sahara Desert and another along the East African coasts of the Indian Ocean, both of which terminated in slave markets in the Muslim world/5(1).
AP WORLD HISTORY REVIEW RHS Mrs. Osborn AFRICA PERIODS 1 & 2 (to CE) IN AFRICA: c. Muslim emperors ruled prosperous land, engaged in trans-Saharan trade New voices and ideas against slavery a. American and French revolutions encouraged ideals of freedom and equality b. Olaudah Equiano was a freed slave whose autobiography became a best.
Document-based Question: American and Muslim Slaveries Slavery is as old as the world 's first civilizations. Two important slave movements were the one across the Sahara Desert and another along the East African coasts of the Indian Ocean, both of which terminated in slave markets in the Muslim .