On the surface, chronic acid reflux GERD and asthma appear to be quite separate conditions with little in common. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes narrowing of the airways, affecting over 20 million people in the US including up to 6 million children.
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis ABPA Asthma is a disease of diffuse airway inflammation caused by a variety of triggering stimuli resulting in partially or completely reversible bronchoconstriction.
Symptoms and signs include dyspnea, chest tightness, cough, and wheezing.
The diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and pulmonary function tests. Treatment involves controlling triggering factors and drug therapy, most commonly with inhaled beta-2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids. Prognosis is good with treatment.
Epidemiology The prevalence of asthma has increased continuously since the s, and the WHO estimates that million people worldwide are affected. More than 25 million people in the US are affected.
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 6 million children in the US; it occurs more frequently in boys before puberty and in girls after puberty.
It also occurs more frequently in non-Hispanic blacks and Puerto Ricans. Despite its increasing prevalence, however, there has been a recent decline in mortality. In the US, about deaths occur annually as a result of asthma. However, the death rate is 2 to 3 times higher for blacks than for whites.
Asthma is the leading cause of hospitalization for children and is the number one chronic condition causing elementary school absenteeism. Etiology Development of asthma is multifactorial and depends on the interactions among multiple susceptibility genes and environmental factors.
Environmental factors may include the following: Allergen exposure Diet Perinatal factors Evidence clearly implicates household allergens eg, dust mite, cockroach, pet and other environmental allergens in disease development in older children and adults.
Diets low in vitamins C and E and in omega—3 fatty acids have been linked to asthma, as has obesity. Asthma has also been linked to perinatal factors, such as young maternal age, poor maternal nutrition, prematurity, low birthweight, and lack of breastfeeding.
On the other hand, endotoxin exposure early in life can induce tolerance and may be protective. Air pollution is not definitively linked to disease development, although it may trigger exacerbations.
The role of childhood exposure to cigarette smoke is controversial, with some studies finding a contributory and some a protective effect.
Genetic and environmental components may interact, thereby determining the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell lineages.
Infants may be born with a predisposition toward proallergic and proinflammatory Th2 immune responses, characterized by growth and activation of eosinophils and IgE production. Early childhood exposure to bacterial and viral infections and endotoxins may shift the body to Th1 responses, which suppresses Th2 cells and induce tolerance.
Trends in developed countries toward smaller families with fewer children, cleaner indoor environments, and early use of vaccinations and antibiotics may deprive children of these Th2-suppressing, tolerance-inducing exposures and may partly explain the continuous increase in asthma prevalence in developed countries the hygiene hypothesis.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome RADS Indoor exposures to nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compounds eg, from paints, solvents, adhesives are implicated in the development of RADS, a persistent asthma-like syndrome in people with no history of asthma see Occupational Asthma.
RADS appears to be distinct from asthma and may be, on occasion, a form of environmental lung disease. However, RADS and asthma have many clinical similarities eg, wheezing, dyspnea, coughand both may respond to corticosteroids.Oct 24, · Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide and affects approximately 24 million persons in the United States.
It is the most common chronic disease in childhood, affecting an estimated 7 million children. Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person, they may become worse at. The original evidence of a potential adverse effect of ß blockers in asthma and COPD was based on case reports of acute bronchospasm precipitated by high doses of noncardioselective ß blockers.
Background: Several recent studies have shown a significant reduction in exacerbation rates in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) patients who received high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) as an airway clearance therapy.
Other studies have reported significant improvements in pulmonary function and quality of life in NCFB patients using HFCWO therapy. The new england journal of medicine n engl j med ;20 ashio-midori.com november 16, microscopical examination has shown thickening of the bronchial and tracheal mucosa correspond-ing to.
Acute exacerbation of COPD also known as acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms (shortness of breath, quantity and color of phlegm) that typically lasts for several ashio-midori.com may be triggered by an infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants.
Typically, infections cause 75% .