Perhaps the most influential integrative theory of personality is that of psychoanalysis, which was largely promulgated during the first four decades of the 20th century by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Although Freud had two older half-brothers, his strongest if also most ambivalent attachment seems to have been to a nephew, John, one year his senior, who provided the model of intimate friend and hated rival that Freud reproduced often at later stages of his life. In the Freud family was compelled for economic reasons to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Viennawhere Freud remained until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later.
Division Merely because a group as a whole has a characteristic, it often doesn't follow that individuals in the group have that characteristic. If you suppose that it does follow, when it doesn't, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Division.
Joshua's soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and won the division title, so their goalie must be the best in the division.
Domino See Slippery Slope. Double Standard There are many situations in which you should judge two things or people by the same standard.
If in one of those situations you use different standards for the two, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Using a Double Standard. I know we will hire any man who gets over a 70 percent on the screening test for hiring Post Office employees, but women should have to get an 80 to be hired because they often have to take care of their children.
This example is a fallacy if it can be presumed that men and women should have to meet the same standard for becoming a Post Office employee. Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term that occurs twice during the reasoning; it is the use of one word taken in two ways.
The fallacy is a kind of Fallacy of Ambiguity. Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.
The term "nobody" changes its meaning without warning in the passage. Equivocation can sometimes be very difficult to detect, as in this argument from Walter Burleigh: If I call you a swine, then I call you an animal. Etymological The Etymological Fallacy occurs whenever someone falsely assumes that the meaning of a word can be discovered from its etymology or origins.
The word "vise" comes from the Latin "that which winds," so it means anything that winds. Since a hurricane winds around its own eye, it is a vise.
Every and All The Fallacy of Every and All turns on errors due to the order or scope of the quantifiers "every" and "all" and "any.
Every action of ours has some final end. So, there is some common final end to all our actions. In proposing this fallacious argument, Aristotle believed the common end is the supreme good, so he had a rather optimistic outlook on the direction of history.
Exaggeration When we overstate or overemphasize a point that is a crucial step in a piece of reasoning, then we are guilty of the Fallacy of Exaggeration. This is a kind of error called Lack of Proportion.
She's practically admitted that she intentionally yelled at that student while on the playground in the fourth grade. Then she said nothing when the teacher asked, "Who did that?
Do you want to elect as secretary of this club someone who is a known liar prone to assault? Doing so would be a disgrace to our Collie Club. When we exaggerate in order to make a joke, though, we do not use the fallacy because we do not intend to be taken literally.
False Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar.
When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy. See also Faulty Comparison.
The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better. The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount.
So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances, too. False Balance A specific form of the False Equivalence Fallacy that occurs in the context of news reporting, in which the reporter misleads the audience by suggesting the evidence on two sides of an issue is equally balanced, when the reporter knows that one of the two sides is an extreme outlier.
Reporters regularly commit this fallacy in order to appear "fair and balanced. The news report of the yesterday's city council meeting says, "David Samsung challenged the council by saying the Gracie Mansion is haunted, so it should not be torn down.
Councilwoman Miranda Gonzales spoke in favor of dismantling the old mansion saying its land is needed for an expansion of the water treatment facility. Both sides seemed quite fervent in promoting their position.
False Cause Improperly concluding that one thing is a cause of another. My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter.
False Dilemma A reasoner who unfairly presents too few choices and then implies that a choice must be made among this short menu of choices is using the False Dilemma Fallacy, as does the person who accepts this faulty reasoning.The word “apology,” the title of this famous dialogue, means “a defense,” not a request for forgiveness.
In meeting the accusation that he had corrupted the youth of . Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis. Freud’s article on psychoanalysis appeared in the 13th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Freud may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age. His . Ancient and Classical Greece Ancient Greece. Ancient Greece was the birthplace of Western philosophical ethics. The ideas of Socrates (c. – bce), Plato, and Aristotle (– bce) will be discussed in the next ashio-midori.com sudden flowering of philosophy during that period was rooted in the ethical thought of earlier centuries.
The Greatness of Socrates Socrates was born in Athens, Greece before the Christian era and was politically indoctrinated under the cultural influences of Athena, Goddess of wisdom, skills, and warfare.
(Loomis p. Home > The Complex Nature of Abused Substances and Getting Help for Addiction > Drug Addiction in India. Drug Addiction in India Status of Drugs in India. The population of India has reached over 1 billion people and is rising.
The country is growing at an incredible pace. After some deliberation, the jury finds Socrates guilty by a vote of to The only surprise that Socrates registers is that the vote was so close: he expected to lose by a much wider margin.
Meletus has proposed the death penalty, and Socrates is invited to propose an alternative form of.